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ISO is one of three important settings on your camera that are used to take well-exposed photos. In film photography, ISO is measured in s. The lower thethe lower the sensitivity of the film, and the finer the grain that will appear in your photos. The lower thethe less sensitive your camera is to light and the finer the resulting grain. Higher s mean your sensor is more sensitive to light, and this allows you to use your camera in darker situations.

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The rod cells are more sensitive, but only provide black and white vision. Mostly it's now done by setting a metadata tag specifying a rendering intent.

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If there is no change in amplification between the two settings eg most Olympus camerasthen the Raw files would be absolutely identical. As long as ISO is not too high and blows the highlight, there is no case where PP would result better image of an underexposed image. Hello, "In that scenario, your image it limited to the scene's DR no matter what you do. That's a rather long discussion though.

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The color region is the 15 deg foveal zone, and I've also included the blind spot, also of the correct size and location relative to the fovea. My point in this article is that 'ISO' doesn't necessarily tell you whether there's any amplification difference going on, so you don't know which you're going to get.

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If there is a combination of digital and analog gain, I think you would see it in the O parameter. In the amplified system you'd get two additional stops of highlight capture at ISO but 1EV more photon shot noise for every comparable tone in the image, plus more quantization noise.

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There'll be potential for more quantization error in the deep shadows, but shot noise and upstream read noise may well swamp your al before that becomes a problem. Is it the photon noise limit - no, because that depends on exposure which is a property of the camera, not the scene.

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But that is never where we process the final from. If you're certain that you know what 'correct' exposure means, then you should probably check through the assumptions that underpin it. If the raw data is multiplied x4, there are no values of 1, 2, and 3. Would not think it would be that hard to implement given it's so readily available in editing software.

This link provides an image of simulated retinal vision. However, fixating on JPEG midtones isn't helpful. If you apply analog amplification by increasing the ISO settingto the point of nearly saturating the ADC, then the resulting image reflects the full DR of the camera. You have to have a TIFF tag reader to see that info.

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I personally think that we should separate the concepts of the al properties scene DR vs. Please see the figure from the link I posted. I treat all my cameras as if they had ASA film in them.

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ISO DR In these situations, you have to let the highlights go. Or, if you have high dynamic range content and you push the shadows in post processing, you might see it then. It will depend on whether your camera applies different analogue amplification to its ISO and ISO settings and what you mean by one stop underexposure.

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In the non-amplified system you'd get one extra EV of highlight capture and every other tone will be 1EV noisier shot noiseplus more quantization noise in the deep shadows. There is a bit more quantization noise. It was taken with an 18mm lens and has a 90 deg field of view. At first glance, ISO settings look just like the sensitivity ratings used for film to the extent that there are some people who still refer to ASA: the US standard incorporated into the ISO standard for film.

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Part of the problem stems from the fact that ISO sounds like something you were already familiar with. The sensor bottom end is determined by sensor noise dark current and amplifier noise and photon noise, and the top end is the full well capacity the maximum of photons the photodiode can capture.

All it does is relate initial exposure to output JPEG lightness, however that is achieved. If shot noise is there, it would seem as though our eyes or brains have built in shot noise reduction.

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The ISO standard doesn't specify that amplification needs to be used, nor does it specify what happens in the Raw file. Worse still, it may be holding your camera back, both in terms of the images it takes and in the tools it provides you. It's either 0 or 4 or 8 or 12, etc.

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In short, ISO is an increasingly shaky metaphor that promotes misunderstanding, obscures what your camera is doing and robs us of the tools we need to get the most out of our cameras. This may sound like semantic nit-picking, but it causes a lot of misunderstandings. Digital is very different: it offers a much more linear response but with a hard, unrecoverable clipping point in the highlights.

Software such as ACR can then apply a non-linear curve to brighten the data, with various degrees of roll-off for the highlights.

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It generally only makes sense to ETTR at base ISO, since that's where you generally get the highest dynamic range, but putting that aside for a moment. If there is a 2x amplification difference between ISO and and you found the ETTR exposure for ISOthen applying that same exposure f- and shutter speed to ISO would give you a stop of additional highlight capture as well as more quantization noise in the shadows. If there is not enough light to fully exposed the pixels, your image DR is being limited to the scene DR unless analog gain is applied.

To be clear, though, no one is suggesting multiplying the data by a fixed. I thought that the high end cameras essentially all have analog gain, and you are correct that my statements only hold for analog gain.

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The human retina has 6 million cones and million rods. Of course, I intuitively know what you mean, but I don't know how to turn that into an engineering definition. Sx is the al dependent noise photon noiseand O is everything else. Rod cells are distributed outside of the fovea with density that decreases with distance from the fovea. The ADC clips at the high end, and has large steps poor granularity at the bottom end.

However, if you're proposing reducing the shutter speed or aperture by one EV for the ISO shot, then:. Film particularly negative film has a very distinctive response curve that gives lots of latitude for recovering highlights. The apparent familiarity and simplicity of ISO setting le to a of common misunderstandings. There are actually two types of shot noise: photon noise and the shot noise from photodiode dark current. Thanks for explaining it to me. I'm still curious as to why our eyes don't see the same shot noise that is being suggested in digital cams though.

Someone might be able convince me otherwise though. Try it yourself. I would disagree with your article. I just double checked the DNG spec - it says "x represents a recorded linear al in the range x in [0,1]. In the retina, the cone cells are the color sensor.

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This is a problem. You might see it in astrophotography where long exposures integrate dark current. Analog gain is pre ADC. Digital gain is post ADC. What else could analog vs. Our perception of vision is constructed in our brains. Quite strange though that very few cameras allow you to display the raw histogram.

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If analog gain means variable gain before the ADC and digital gain means multiplying the converted raw data by N, the are not interchangeable. Late to the post but I agree whole-heartedly with the article. Without going into details, the O vs.

What is iso in photography?

I totally appreciate what you are saying. ISO behavior I saw was consistent with a purely analog gain - but I'll have to rethink that in light of your comments. Cone cells are highly concentrated in the fovea, which is the only part that delivers truly sharp vision, but it has only a 15 deg field of view.

Yes the sensor has a sensitivity figure. In most modern sensors, which have on-chip ADCs and virtually no downstream read noisethere'll be very little difference between shooting at low ISO and brightening later, vs adding a bit of amplification at the point of shooting.

This means it's potentially holding your photography back, too. Higher ISO shot may not look much better but it certainly would not be worse. However, if 4 stop of analog gain is applied to the output of the photodiode, the output of ADC will have all the values between 0 and full scale value. Both the sensor and the ADC have a dynamic range. I'm yet to be convinced that shot noise is a major contributor to noise in low light shots or shadows. The vast majority of photographs don't really get down to that bottom end.

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Obviously, this is not our perception of vision, but it is the raw material our brains work with. Despite what you may have heard or read, changing the ISO of your camera does not change its sensitivity. How does one even provide a precise definition of "scene DR"? What is the bottom end? You would only see the difference at the very low levels with a lot of post processing boost of the deep shadows, as Richard Butler said. Particularly as our eyes don't see the shot noise at night. Answer: virtually nothing! What we see is not what our eye sees. You obviously have some al processing expertise.

It means no development has been done to create more sophisticated tools that would help you judge the quality implications of exposing to the right, and when to let the highlights go.

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