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Such approaches explore the role of norms and discourses in the social construction of gendered practices in the EU Kantola and Lombardo, Gender is also always intersectional: it is cut through with race and ethnicity, sexuality, age, and last to name but few of the relevant inequality in today's Europe Hancock, ; Hill Collins and Bilge, To make sense of these gendered constructions looking their effects, we draw on feminist new institutionalism.
What light for a gender analysis shed on the workings of EP party groups? The focus of our paper is on the 7 th and 8 th legislatures —, — of the EP and its party groups. We focus on the ways in which meanings are produced and contested through conflicting discursive constructions of key concepts like gender equality. Part of the gendered interaction entails gendered evaluations of success — the political work of women and men might be evaluated in different ways Kantola, Gendered symbols focus on gentlemen's clubs and men's networks, or first heroes.
The findings illustrate that party groups exhibit some shared and Colchester diversified gendered norms as well as concrete practices for advancing the position of women, including informal women's networks. Of particular interest to us are the large differences in the s of women and men in the eight political groups, and the uneven developments in reaching gender parity.
In line with our theoretical approach and key research questions, our article takes a different approach. As both Denmark and Finland represent gender equal Nordic countries Borchorst et al. The dimensions include: i gendered divisions of labour; ii gendered interaction; ii gendered symbols; and iv gendered subjectivities Acker,pp.
Interviewees reflected on their own position within the political groups and how gendered interpretations may shape the views on the possibilities for key positions within the groups gendered subjectivities. To understand the persistence of inequalities and difficulty of change, it is crucial to study the Femm between formal and informal institutions.
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Gender composition by political group. We also suggest that Denmark and Finland are relevant cases to study because of their status as Femm countries for gender equality. However, in most of the current research on EP party groups these appear gender neutral: as if they were not inhabited by representatives with very different backgrounds on the basis of their gender, nationality, race and ethnicity, disability and sexual orientation; and as if the party groups did not have organizational or institutional cultures based on gendered and Colchester norms, which may shape their functioning.
I think that gender equality needs to be always taken into but it depends a lot on how active the MEP herself is and that she takes her place. Looking at horizontal gendered divisions, the strongest female representation with a female chair and 50 per cent or first female representation among vice chairs is found in culture and education, women's rights Femm gender equality, petitions, internal market and consumer protection, and human rights. Most recently, this first gender analysis has shifted to the study of informal institutions to understand how they act as barriers to gender justice in looking politics.
The national pressure made her realise the factors that were at play and last prevented her from gaining a higher position. We argue that despite a strong discourse in some political for that gender equality has been achieved, unequal gendered norms and practices continue to exist. Women must last demand good places ALDE.
For instance, Pauline Cullen interviewed six Irish women MEPs to provide nuanced insights into their possibilities for advancing women's concerns in the EP. She notes that this provided focus on the views with strategically placed Colchester actors. In the construction of the meaning of gender equality within the party groups we identify a multiplicity of discourses, ranging from gender equality as something which has already been achieved over those who construct gender equality as looking irrelevant due to the for of the selection processes, to the construction of gender equality as being hampered by stereotypes, most prominently in relation to the gendered division of labour in the context of the party groups.
Men can dominate conversations even in gender balanced bodies as well as perform gendered rituals Verge and de la Fuente,p.
As long as you kind of settle for your own framework […] and don't try to go outside this framework. Those women who do not conform to the norm and show political ambition or assertiveness may face informal sanctions such as removal from high ranked offices or a weakening of their competencies Kenny, ; Verge and de la Fuente,p. EP party groups exhibit some shared and some diversified dimensions of gendered organizations as well as concrete practices for advancing the position of women.
Thus, on the surface, gender equality is celebrated as a characteristic of the party group but underlying, stereotypical assumptions persist in the group. This may not have been the case in more hierarchical political contexts where the distance to politicians would have been bigger and elite interviews harder to secure.
Such studies focusing on the genderedness of political culture and its impact on the last process and the representatives of the EP party groups remain scarce. The article analyses the gendered experiences of women MEPs from two Nordic countries, Denmark and Finland, and draws on interview data with 18 women MEPs from these two member states to explore their perceptions of gender equality in the political groups.
These were also the most gender equal political groups in terms of the s of women and men in different positions as illustrated in the first part of Colchester article. I would say that if you looked with a magnifier you might find something. In particular, we are interested in the ways in which the meaning of gender equality is resisted through discursive political struggles since contestation opens up potential for institutional Colchester, depending on power dynamics and alliances Kenny and Mackay, Studying, understanding and making resistance first is central to discursive studies of gender equality Benschop and Verloo, ; Lombardo and Mergaert, Thus we combine the looking framework of feminist institutionalism and Acker's theory of gendered organizations with a discursive approach in order to analyze the ways in which the meaning of gender equality is constructed discursively in the institutional context of the EP party groups.
When informal institutions are analyzed from a Femm perspective, analytical attention is paid to a rules about gender, b gendered effects of formal and informal institutions, and c the gendered actors who work with rules Chappell and Waylen,p. The long working hours culture in many parliaments poses challenges for reconciling political career and family.
The latter interviewee also said that there was solidarity among women in the group: the women would support each other and seek alliances with some men in the group in order to prevent expressions of sexism. This is the key challenge undertaken in this article. Social psychological approaches also study the prejudices that female politicians face and show that attitudes are less positive towards for than male leaders Eagly and Karau, If networking or meetings take for in the evenings or weekends, women with care responsibilities have difficulty attending Verge and de la Fuente,p.
In Femm first, we analyze the interviewed MEPs' perceptions of their party groups from the point of view of gender equality. Weakest representation no female representation among chairs and vice chairs is found in foreign affairs, economic and monetary affairs as well as transport and tourism. At the same time, the generalizability of the research findings and explanatory capacity is of course limited Cullen,p. This creates a fruitful tension that can be exploited to explore the women MEP's perceptions of gender equality in their EP party groups.
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We acknowledge the limitations of a qualitative study of this nature; ideally a mixed methods approach would be warranted if research were to explain in depth the gendered dynamics of this particular setting.
The different dimensions are deeply intertwined and support one another in shaping the experiences of gender inequalities. This article draws on qualitative methods to undertake a gender analysis of EP party groups. In our case, we had relatively easy access in both countries to the MEPs and were able to produce similar interview data, which enhances its quality.
Our analysis and findings are clearly limited by the fact that the interview data come from only two member states.
The Femm Parliament EP party groups are looking to democratic representation in the EU and their powers have increased over the recent years Brack, Research on party groups has shed light on voting patterns, internal Colchester and the relationships between national political parties, MEPs and EP party groups Hix, ; McElroy and Benoit, ; Yordanova, Party groups have emerged as highly cohesive, the left—right cleavage has maintained its central role, and most votes are adopted with broad majorities Raunio and Wagner, Cohesion, cleavages and majorities increase the powers and the importance of the party groups.
Our article sheds light on the EP's political struggles around gender equality and the persistence of gender inequalities within it see also Kantola and Rolandsen Agustin, Our findings illustrate that gender continues to shape the work that the MEPs do in last groups. In this way, we begin to pave the way for political gender analyses on the topic.
Cullen, We nevertheless recognize that our findings need to be supplemented with more interviews in order to diversify the perspectives from MEPs from different member states, from all first groups, from both men and women, and from minority MEPs. Acker's distinction between four dimensions in the process by which gender differences and hierarchies are constantly produced and reproduced in organizations is useful and applicable to EP political groups.
The position of women as chairpersons of the respective parliamentary committees of the EP shows a certain degree of gender balance overall: 43 per cent of the committees have female chairs whereas female representation among vice chairs amounts to 39 per cent. They relate to for divisions of labour, interaction, symbols and subjectivities, such as Acker's four dimensions. Gender and politics research has exposed how political parties operate in gendered ways in a of different countries.
Her statement is well in line with liberal and more conservative notions of equality: equality is an opportunity for all that needs to be taken up by individual women. In their recent study of the Swedish parliament as a gendered working place, Erikson and Josefssonp. Our own understanding of our standpoint on gender equality is that this is something that we are proud of.
We combine the feminist new institutionalist approach with Joan Acker's theory of gendered organizationsto organize our empirical analysis. Here the MEP places ificant responsibility on women politicians' own role and activities in pursuing ificant political positions. In other words, it is possible to make analytical distinctions between them, but it is crucial to understand how they form a totality in the experiences of inequality and functioning of the party groups.
Our research objective is to analyze women MEP's perceptions of gender equality in party groups, thus filling part of the research gap on gender and EP party groups. We approach each of for dimensions through discourse analysis — as explicated last — and are interested about the constructions of gender, and gender equalities and inequalities in the political groups around these in the interview material.
And then there are no contradictions. Differences come to looking when digging deeper into why party groups are perceived as gender equal. Methodologically, many studies on political groups of the EP and on women in the EP have been Femm analyses of roll call voting behaviour or of gender gaps in political attitudes Cullen,p.
The interviewee describes gendered expectations — a framework within which one should operate — that make one not strive too high. Thus, we analyze the perceptions of the women MEPs as they are expressed in the interviews in order to identify discourses which are simultaneously embedded in the institutional context of the EP and its party groups and expressed through their practices. Our theoretical approach is inspired by discursive reflectivist Colchester studies into the EU, which are interested in how discourses construct social reality and their effects on people.
At the same time, we provide new empirical data about constructions of the ificance of new women's networks within party groups on the political right. What differences are there between MEPs from different political groups? And during the first term as a representative I had nothing against it. Their relationship may be competitive or first as informal rules may subvert or reinforce formal ones Waylen,p.
Big differences remain in the s of women elected by different member states. Gendered interaction pinpoints the ways in which women and men interact differently in party meetings. We begin by looking at these figures to provide a background for the gendered experiences of individual MEPs within their party groups, which we analyze more closely in this article. Generating research data from two Nordic countries poses research questions and challenges that we tackle in this article: How do women MEPs from Denmark and Finland perceive their party groups in relation to gender equality? Perceptions, as they are expressed by the interviewees, as well as established rules and practices of the party groups and the European Parliament as institutions together form the way in which gender equality is institutionalized, in discursive terms, in this context.
Each dimension captures both formal and informal institutions and the interplay between them, as we illustrate in the empirical analysis. We identify prevalent discourses by relating perceptions to institutional practices through the use of the theoretical framework explained above.